Friday, July 19, 2024

Clearing the backlog



Yikes! My backlog is blocked! How can this be? We're agile... or maybe we've become de-agiled. Can that happen?

Ah yes, we're agile, but perhaps not everything in the portfolio is agile; indeed, perhaps not everything in the project is agile.

In the event, coupling is the culprit.

Coupling? 
Coupling is system engineering speak for transferring one effect onto another, or causing an effect by some process or outcome elsewhere. The coupling can be loose or tight.
  • Loose coupling: there is some effect transference, but not a lot. Think of double-pane windows decoupling the exterior environment from the interior
  • Tight coupling: there is almost complete transference of one effect onto another. Think of how a cyclist puts (couples) energy into moving the chain; almost no energy is lost flexing the frame.
In the PM domain, it's coupling of dependencies: we tend to think of strong or weak corresponding roughly to tight or loose.
 
Managing coupling is a task in risk management because coupling may introduce unwanted risks in the project or the product.

If coupling is a problem, how to solve it?
If coupling is a benefit, how to obtain it?
First, there's buffers to loosen coupling
The buffer -- if large enough -- absorbs the effect. For an excellent treatment of buffers in the PM domain, see Goldratt's  book "Critical Chain Method" for more about decoupling with buffers

Second, there are coupling objects
  • To avoid coupling, buffers may not do the trick.
  • But to enable coupling, we need some connectivity
In either case, think of objects, temporary or permanent, that can effect the coupling. A common example is seam in one fabric joining to another. The seam forms a "rip-stop" which prevents a ripping all down the fabric. 
 
One system that uses such a rip-stop is the sails on a boat: rip-stops are sewn into the sail fabric to prevent a total failure in the event of damage in one section, and thereby to decouple the damage from one section to another.
 
Now, move that idea from a sail to a backlog, using object interfaces for isolating one backlog to another (agile-on-agile), or from the agile backlog to structured requirements (agile-on-traditional).

With loose coupling, we get the window pane effect: stuff can go on in "Environment A" without strongly influencing "Environment B". 
Some caution advised: this is sort of a "us vs them" approach, some might say stove piping.

The case for tight coupling
Obviously then, there are some risks with loose coupling in the architecture that bear against the opportunity to keep the backlog moving, to wit: we want to maintain pretty tight coupling on communication among project teams while at the same time we loosen the coupling between their deliverables.

There are two approaches:
  • Invent a temporary object to be a surrogate or stand-in for the partner project/process/object. In other words, we 'stub out' the effect into a temporary effect absorber.
  • Invent a service object (like a window pane) to provide the 'services' to get from one environment to another.
Of course, you might recognize the second approach as a middle layer, or the service operating system of a service-oriented-architecture (SOA), or just an active interface that does transformation and processing (coupling) from one object/process to another.

With all this, you might see the advantages of an architect on the agile team!




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Monday, July 15, 2024

Government Research you can access



Since at least 2013, there's been a push from the President's Office of Science and Technology Policy to make as much as possible of government sponsored research available to the public for free.

On August 25th, 2022, this policy initiative of access to government research got another push when OSTP published more detailed and aggressive guidance to the executive departments.

What was behind pay walls and other barriers may now be in the free public domain. 
Your project might benefit.
Check it out.



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Friday, July 12, 2024

Software: Is it ever Done?



The software is never done!

Certainly not news; and certainly not profound to any engineer, coder, or PM working in the software industry, writing apps, or supporting software enabled devices.

Users have come to expect routine and regular updates to all things software.

Ooops, not so fast!
What about the automobile industry?
Traditionally: the car is done! 
  • Buy it; keep it; sell it, eventually. Never needs an upgrade!
But that tradition may be short-lived: Cars will need upgrades over the life-cycle

What now?
A few months after I bought a new car I got a recall notice to take it in for an upgrade to the transmission control software. That recall system is probably the way to keep software up to date for many of the in-vehicle software programs. 
  • But, is this only a warranty service? 
  • How long would manufactures support software upgrades for 2nd or 3rd party apps?
  • The life of car is 12 years+ for new vehicles. That's 'forever and forever' in the software industry, comparable to still supporting the iPhone 4! 
Big Tech
So-called big tech is taking over much of the user interface and user apps in new vehicles (except Tesla which does all its own in-house design and does not support Android and Apple apps on its user panels)

Long term support
As a project manager, what can you look forward to as regards long-term supportability of apps?
And, as a app developer, you may be one layer removed from knowing that it will find its way into the automobile industry. 
And as a business manager or customer support liaison, which customer are you supporting most?
  • The one that pays the bills (automobile manufacturer) or 
  • The customer that buys the car?
In the Agile sense of value-as defined-by-the customer, who is most influential?
Long term, these are my wonderments. I wonder how they would be written into project requirements?
  • I wonder if you'll be able to go to your local auto parts retailer and buy an upgrade-on-a-stick for legacy vehicles? 
  • I wonder if there is not a whole industry to be invented supporting older cars with updated interfaces?  
  • I wonder if its practical to expect the after-market developer to maintain currency for 'a long time'. 
  • I wonder if personal security, data security (nav data, for instance, but also other data about downloads to the car like music stations and podcasts, etc), and all the rest will not spawn a whole set of requirements, support issues, and a supporting industry?

Perhaps in the future, the mantra will have to be something like this:

The software is never done!
And, neither is the car!


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Tuesday, July 9, 2024

Is your enterprise Agile?




Applying agile methodology in your software project? Good!

Working for an organization large enough to be called an 'enterprise'? Probably that's good.
Why so?
  • Access to resources is the main reason. You may have heard that agile is all about small self-directing teams -- yes, that's part of the doctrine.
     
  • But how many teams are needed for your project? Dozens? Hundreds even? Where do those people, tools, training, facilities, communications, etc. come from? And who pays for all that?

  • Answer: the Enterprise.
Ah, yes, the enterprise has money!
And where does that money come from? Not you, most likely. Other people! So Other People's Money (OPM) is what is funding you.

Who are these people? If an enterprise, then there are going to be a wide variety: Customers (profit), or taxpayers (if you're a government enterprise), or donors (if you're a charity, church, etc), or owners (if privately held), or investors (if you're a publicly traded company)

Enterprise imposes expectations
So, here's the thing: even if you're doing Agile methods in an enterprise setting, the enterprise will impose expectations up front .... starting with: expected value return on resources invested.

It's natural that Agile people resist too much "up front" definition; we're about evolution and iteration. But there has to be a compromise.
It's the ageless problem: Other people's money! OPM comes with strings, to wit: a value return is more than expected; it's required.

Enterprise expects estimates (gasp!)
And here's another thing: the enterprise expects that you can estimate/forecast/predict what the resource requirements are that will get to something valuable (to the enterprise). In other words, it's rare indeed that there's a pot of gold you can dip into at your leisure and convenience, unless you're just a researcher working on your own small project.

Enterprise brings scale
What makes an enterprise an enterprise is size and scale. 
And what makes a project "enterprise" in it's scope is size and scale.
And there is the rub: Size and scale is always more than what a handful of people can carry around in their head. So, many others have to lend a hand and participate in making and supporting both size and scale. 

Scale is not just a lot of one thing, like a large code base. Scale brings breadth, meaning a lot of different things involved and integrated, and scale brings then brings rules, procedures, accountability, etc. into the frame because a lot of people have to work somewhat anonymously ... according to rules and procedures ... to bring it together, repeatedly, within predictable limits.

The question: "Can it be done what your doing 'at scale'?" Hand-crafted, job shop, one-off are not descriptions of scale.  

Enterprise brings rules
There will be a lot of rules. 
There will be a lot of rules because there will be a lot of people involved, many you will never meet, doing jobs for the enterprise you may not even be aware of, but these jobs will nevertheless touch your project or product.

Enterprise requires a narrative
Invariably, one of the rules is going to be you have to have a viable narrative to get resources committed to your project. The standard elements of the narrative you've heard before:
  1. Vision: What is envisioned as the benefit to the enterprise? Who are envisioned as the beneficiaries?
  2. Scope: What is it you're going to do (and what are the ancillary or consequential impacts elsewhere in the enterprise that you don't consider part of your scope?)
  3. Schedule: when can you likely produce results (no single point estimates, of course. It takes a range!)
  4. Resources: how much, and when (cash flow, and resource allocations)
I can't do this!
Narrative, estimates, rules, value commitments?
You're not enterprise-ready!

I almost forgot:
I wrote the book: "Project Management the Agile Way: Making it work in the Enterprise" 2nd Edition



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Friday, July 5, 2024

Activities, Results, Methdology



Back in yesteryear, I recall the first time I had a management job big enough that my team was too large for line-of-sight from my desk and location.

Momentary panic: "What are they doing? How will I know if they are doing anything? What if I get asked what are they doing? How will I answer any of these questions?"

Epiphany: What I thought were important metrics now become less important; outcomes rise to the top
  • Activity becomes not too important. Where and when they worked could be delegated locally
  • Methods are still somewhat important because Quality (in the large sense) is buried in Methods. So, can't let methods be delegated willy nilly
  • Outcomes now become the biggie: are we getting results according to expectations?
There's that word: "Expectations"
In any enterprise large enough to not have line-of-sight to everyone, there are going to be lots of 'distant' managers, executives, investors, and customers who have 'expectations'. And, they have the money! So, you don't get a free ride on making up your own expectations (if you ever did)

At the End of the Day
  • I had 800 on my team
  • 400 of them were in overseas locations
  • 400 of them were in multiple US locations
  • I had multiple offices
  • It all worked out: we made money!





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Monday, July 1, 2024

"Against the Gods"... a risk perspective



If you are in the project management (read: risk management) business, one of the best books that describes the philosophy and foundation for modern risk management is Peter L. Bernstein's "Against the Gods: the remarkable story of risk".

Against the Gods is historical, somewhat philosophical, and void of math!
It's a book for "thinkers"

Between the covers of this "must read" we learn this bit:
The essence of risk management lies in maximizing the areas where we have some control over the outcome while minimizing the areas where we have absolutely no control over the outcome and the linkage between effect and cause is hidden from us.

Peter Bernstein
"Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk"

Knowledge and control
Dealing with risk necessarily breaks down into that in which more knowledge will help us understand deal with risk (climate change), and that in which effects are truly random and no amount of additional knowledge is going to help (rolling dice).

Bernstein goes on to develop one of the key themes of the book which is the idea that probability theory and statistical analysis have revolutionized our ability to understand and manage risk.

Picking apart Bernstein's "essence" separates matters into control and knowledge:
  • We know about it, and can fashion controls for it
  • We know about it, and we can't do much about it, even if we understand cause and effect
  • We know about it, but we don't understand the elements of cause and effect, and so we're pretty much at a loss.
  • We don't know about it, or we don't know enough about it, and more knowledge would help.
Of course, Donald Rumsfeld, in 2002, may have put it more famously:
" ....... because as we know, there are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns—the ones we don't know we don't know."
No luck
So there is an ah-hah moment here: if all things have a cause and effect, even if they are hidden, there is no such thing as luck. (Newtonian physics to the rescue once again)

Thus, as a risk management regimen, we don't have to be concerned with managing luck! That's probably a good thing (Ooops, as luck may have it, if our project is about the subatomic level, then the randomness of quantum physics is in charge. Thus: luck?)

Indeed, our good friend Laplace, a French mathematician of some renown, said this:
Present events are connected with preceding ones by a tie based upon the evident principle that a thing cannot occur without a cause that produces it. . . .
All events, even those which on account of their insignificance do not seem to follow the great laws of nature, are a result of it just as necessarily as the revolutions of the sun.
Bernstein or Bayes' (with help from ChatGPT)

Following up on the idea of the knowledge-control linkage to risk management, Bayes' Theorem comes to mind. Bayes' is all about forming a hypothesis, testing it with real observations, and using those outcomes to refine the hypothesis, eventually arriving at a probabilistic description of the risk.

LaPlace, mentioned above, is one of the architects of the probability theory that underlay Bayes'.  Thus, one of the most interesting discussions in the book centers on Bayes' theorem, which Bernstein describes as "one of the most powerful tools of statistical analysis ever invented."

Bayes' theorem is a manner of reasoning about random and unknown effects and a mathematical formula that allows us to update our beliefs about the probability of an event occurring based on new evidence. It is a powerful tool for making predictions and decisions based on incomplete information, and it has applications in fields ranging from medicine to finance to engineering.

Bernstein's discussion of Bayes' theorem in "Against the Gods" is particularly interesting because he highlights the fact that Bayesian reasoning is often at odds with our intuition. Humans have a tendency to overestimate the likelihood of rare events and underestimate the probability of more common events. Bayes' theorem provides a framework for overcoming these biases and making more accurate predictions.

Cognitive Bias in risk management
Bernstein talks a lot about cognitive biases and their impact on decision-making under uncertainty.

According to Bernstein, cognitive biases are mental shortcuts that people use to simplify complex decisions. These shortcuts can lead to errors in judgment and decision-making. Cognitive biases can be influenced by a number of factors, including emotions, personal experience, and cultural values.

Some examples of cognitive biases that Bernstein discusses in the book include the availability bias, which is the tendency to overestimate the likelihood of events that are more easily recalled from memory; and the confirmation bias, which is the tendency to look for information that confirms our existing beliefs and to ignore information that contradicts them.

One key point Bernstein makes is that humans have a natural tendency to be overconfident in their abilities to predict and control events. This is known as the "illusion of control" bias. People often believe they have more control over events than they actually do, leading them to take on more risk than is rational.

Another common cognitive bias is the "confirmation bias," in which people seek out information that confirms their preexisting beliefs, while ignoring or dismissing information that contradicts those beliefs. This can lead to a lack of objectivity in decision-making.

Bernstein also discusses the "hindsight bias," in which people tend to believe that an event was more predictable after it has already occurred. This bias can lead to overconfidence in future predictions, as people may believe that they could have predicted the outcome of an event that has already occurred.

Overall, Bernstein suggests that understanding and being aware of cognitive biases is essential to making better decisions and managing risk effectively. By recognizing these biases, individuals can take steps to mitigate their impact on their decision-making processes.


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Thursday, June 27, 2024

RaaS .. It's about results


It's been around a few years, but RaaS ... Results as a Service ... is getting more play in projects. RaaS is a play on the more familiar and older SaaS, Software as a Service. So the difference is, among other things, that RaaS is end-item focused; tools and processes are in the black box; and the customer is buying a result they can use.

Wait!
Have we just relabeled the firm fixed-price (FFP) contract?
  • FFP has been around since the beginning of time it seems.
  • The customer contracts for an outcome, a result, and end-item, at a fixed price.
  • The customer does not weigh in on process, methods, and tools
  • The customer does not weigh in on staffing or schedule details. Major milestones, perhaps only one milestone at the end are all that count.
If Agile Methods are part of the FFP contract, then the customer may be in the loop for partial product evaluation and course corrections, but such has to be within the envelope of the original scope, or the dreaded change order comes out. And if that happens, there goes the "fixed price".

In any event, beware of old wine in new bottles, unless the wine is really different, along with the bottle!



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